Some crops on the farm have a growth habit that is best supported with the helping hand of a built structure.
One such crop is pole beans, which send out runners to wind their way up whatever they can find. So farm manager Eric Ball and Emily McGlohn built a bamboo and twine structure for the growing bean vines to wind themselves up, though the runners still need a little help to “train” them to find the right places to climb.
Eric built another structure last spring to support blackberry canes. In the first year of growth, the blackberries produce primocanes, which were pruned and managed so that they spread across suspended wires, making them nearly invisible. In the second year, the established primocanes become floricanes, where flowers grow and then bear the fruit Rural Studio Farm is now harvesting.
Because the primocanes were pruned and supported by the wires, the fruit is borne off the canes in easy-to-pick cascades at three-foot and five-foot heights. As the floricanes produce berries, the plants also sprout new primocanes that will be next year’s floricanes. Once fruiting ends, Eric will cut out the spent floricanes and begin pruning and training the primocanes for next year’s harvest.
Eric, Steve Long, Xavier Vendrell, and Mary English also built a support structure for determinate field tomatoes so that they will have something to hold them up once they get top-heavy and begin bearing tomatoes.
Meanwhile, in the greenhouse, plants supported on string-lines—cucumbers, tomatoes, and cherry tomatoes—continue to bear fruit. The greenhouse zucchini has also been extremely prolific
Like tomatoes, cucumbers are well suited to being grown in a greenhouse where warmer temperatures and the support of vertical growth can produce huge harvests. Eric Ball (Rural Studio’s farm manager) and the students constructed a trellis and began cucumber seeds back at the beginning of March and now their efforts are bearing fruit.
As the cucumber plants grow, Eric pruned off the side shoots so that each plant had a single growing stem, and he helped train the tendrils to grab the trellis. This reduces crowding, promotes good cucumber health and production, and improves ventilation.
Each leaf node produces a side shoot, a flower, and a tendril for climbing.
Until advances in plant breeding, cucumbers were typically monoecious, which means that each individual plant produces both male and female flowers. This also means that they are in need of a pollinator to transfer pollen from the male flower’s stamen to the female flower’s stigma (this can occur on flowers from the same plant). Since these cucumbers are being grown in a greenhouse, where pollinators are infrequent visitors, this means that ordinary cucumbers won’t set fruit unless hand-pollinated—a laborious and time-consuming activity for these productive and delicate-flowered plants.
As such, Eric selected a hybrid cucumber variety that is both parthenocarpic, meaning that fruit can develop without being fertilized, and gynoecious, meaning it produces primarily female flowers, since the redundant male flowers would only divert the plant’s limited resources away from fruit production.
It’s official: 2019-20 has been the wettest winter in Alabama’s recorded history. Our region got around 27 inches, with over 12 inches in February alone. It’s pretty tough for Eric and the students to work in those conditions, even so, they finished the new beds and got them all planted out with food and cover crops.
On rainy days, however, there is still plenty to work on in the seed house and the greenhouse. Despite all the cold and rain, this week really felt like the beginning of spring, as students have started some warm-season crops. They transplanted tomatoes and cherry tomatoes, which were started in the seed house in mid-January, into the greenhouse right around March 1. As they grow, the students will prune and train these tomatoes to grow on string lines suspended from the greenhouse.
They also began some cucumber and zucchini seeds to be transplanted into the greenhouse (statistically, there is likely to be another freeze, so the field will need to wait). Like the tomatoes, the cucumbers will grow vertically, so students suspended a trellis for the vines to climb up.